Belcheva A, Irrazabal T, Robertson SJ, Streutker C, Maughan H, Rubino S, Moriyama EH, Copeland JK, Kumar S, Green B, Geddes K, Pezo RC, Navarre WW, Milosevic M, Wilson BC, Girardin SE, Wolever TM, Edelmann W, Guttman DS, Philpott DJ, Martin A
Cell 2014 Jul;158(2):288-99
The etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been linked to deficiencies in mismatch repair and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) proteins, diet, inflammatory processes, and gut microbiota. However, the mechanism through which the microbiota synergizes with these etiologic factors to promote CRC is not clear. We report that altering the microbiota composition reduces CRC in APC(Min/+)MSH2(-/-) mice, and that a diet reduced in carbohydrates phenocopies this effect. Gut microbes did not induce CRC in these mice through an inflammatory response or the production of DNA mutagens but rather by providing carbohydrate-derived metabolites such as butyrate that fuel hyperproliferation of MSH2(-/-) colon epithelial cells. Further, we provide evidence that the mismatch repair pathway has a role in regulating β-catenin activity and modulating the differentiation of transit-amplifying cells in the colon. These data thereby provide an explanation for the interaction between microbiota, diet, and mismatch repair deficiency in CRC induction. PAPERCLIP:
Azad MB, Konya T, Maughan H, Guttman DS, Field CJ, Sears MR, Becker AB, Scott JA, Kozyrskyj AL
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2013;9(1):15
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have demonstrated that early-life exposure to pets or siblings affords protection against allergic disease; these associations are commonly attributed to the “hygiene hypothesis”. Recently, low diversity of the infant gut microbiota has also been linked to allergic disease. In this study, we characterize the infant gut microbiota in relation to pets and siblings.
METHODS: The study population comprised a small sub-sample of 24 healthy, full term infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Mothers reported on household pets and siblings. Fecal samples were collected at 4 months of age, and microbiota composition was characterized by high-throughput signature gene sequencing.
RESULTS: Microbiota richness and diversity tended to be increased in infants living with pets, whereas these measures were decreased in infants with older siblings. Infants living with pets exhibited under-representation of Bifidobacteriaceae and over-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae; infants with older siblings exhibited under-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that exposure to pets and siblings may influence the early development of the gut microbiota, with potential implications for allergic disease. These two traditionally protective “hygiene hypothesis” factors appear to differentially impact gut microbiota composition and diversity, calling into question the clinical significance of these measures. Further research is required to confirm and expand these findings.
Jiménez B, Ugwu F, Zhao R, Ortí L, Makhnevych T, Pineda-Lucena A, Houry WA
J. Biol. Chem. 2012 Feb;287(8):5698-709
Tah1 and Pih1 are novel Hsp90 interactors. Tah1 acts as a cofactor of Hsp90 to stabilize Pih1. In yeast, Hsp90, Tah1, and Pih1 were found to form a complex that is required for ribosomal RNA processing through their effect on box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein assembly. Tah1 is a minimal tetratricopeptide repeat protein of 111 amino acid residues that binds to the C terminus of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone, whereas Pih1 consists of 344 residues of unknown fold. The NMR structure of Tah1 has been solved, and this structure shows the presence of two tetratricopeptide repeat motifs followed by a C helix and an unstructured region. The binding of Tah1 to Hsp90 is mediated by the EEVD C-terminal residues of Hsp90, which bind to a positively charged channel formed by Tah1. Five highly conserved residues, which form a two-carboxylate clamp that tightly interacts with the ultimate Asp-0 residue of the bound peptide, are also present in Tah1. Tah1 was found to bind to the C terminus of Pih1 through the C helix and the unstructured region. The C terminus of Pih1 destabilizes the protein in vitro and in vivo, whereas the binding of Tah1 to Pih1 allows for the formation of a stable complex. Based on our data, a model for an Hsp90-Tah1-Pih1 ternary complex is proposed.