Arabidopsis triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme2 is a negative regulator of the salicylic Acid-mediated feedback amplification loop for defense responses

Ung H, Moeder W, Yoshioka K

Plant Physiol. 2014 Oct;166(2):1009-21

PMID: 25185123


The triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily represents a group of enzymes that is characterized by their ability to hydrolyze a range of tripolyphosphate substrates. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes three TTM genes, AtTTM1, AtTTM2, and AtTTM3. Although AtTTM3 has previously been reported to have tripolyphosphatase activity, recombinantly expressed AtTTM2 unexpectedly exhibited pyrophosphatase activity. AtTTM2 knockout mutant plants exhibit an enhanced hypersensitive response, elevated pathogen resistance against both virulent and avirulent pathogens, and elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) upon infection. In addition, stronger systemic acquired resistance compared with wild-type plants was observed. These enhanced defense responses are dependent on SA, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4, and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1. Despite their enhanced pathogen resistance, ttm2 plants did not display constitutively active defense responses, suggesting that AtTTM2 is not a conventional negative regulator but a negative regulator of the amplification of defense responses. The transcriptional suppression of AtTTM2 by pathogen infection or treatment with SA or the systemic acquired resistance activator benzothiadiazole further supports this notion. Such transcriptional regulation is conserved among TTM2 orthologs in the crop plants soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus), suggesting that TTM2 is involved in immunity in a wide variety of plant species. This indicates the possible usage of TTM2 knockout mutants for agricultural applications to generate pathogen-resistant crop plants.

Microbial genome-enabled insights into plant-microorganism interactions

Guttman D, McHardy AC, Schulze-Lefert P

Nat. Rev. Genet. 2014 Sep;

PMID: 25266034


Advances in genome-based studies on plant-associated microorganisms have transformed our understanding of many plant pathogens and are beginning to greatly widen our knowledge of plant interactions with mutualistic and commensal microorganisms. Pathogenomics has revealed how pathogenic microorganisms adapt to particular hosts, subvert innate immune responses and change host range, as well as how new pathogen species emerge. Similarly, culture-independent community profiling methods, coupled with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies, have provided the first insights into the emerging field of research on plant-associated microbial communities. Together, these approaches have the potential to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and plant pathology, which have traditionally been two distinct research fields.