Regulation of obesity-related insulin resistance with gut anti-inflammatory agents

Luck H, Tsai S, Chung J, Clemente-Casares X, Ghazarian M, Revelo XS, Lei H, Luk CT, Shi SY, Surendra A, Copeland JK, Ahn J, Prescott D, Rasmussen BA, Chng MH, Engleman EG, Girardin SE, Lam TK, Croitoru K, Dunn S, Philpott DJ, Guttman DS, Woo M, Winer S, Winer DA

Cell Metab. 2015 Apr;21(4):527-42

PMID: 25863246

Abstract

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, but little is known about its influence on the intestinal immune system. Here we show that the gut immune system is altered during high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) that can be exploited therapeutically. Obesity induces a chronic phenotypic pro-inflammatory shift in bowel lamina propria immune cell populations. Reduction of the gut immune system, using beta7 integrin-deficient mice (Beta7(null)), decreases HFD-induced IR. Treatment of wild-type HFD C57BL/6 mice with the local gut anti-inflammatory, 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA), reverses bowel inflammation and improves metabolic parameters. These beneficial effects are dependent on adaptive and gut immunity and are associated with reduced gut permeability and endotoxemia, decreased visceral adipose tissue inflammation, and improved antigen-specific tolerance to luminal antigens. Thus, the mucosal immune system affects multiple pathways associated with systemic IR and represents a novel therapeutic target in this disease.

Lung microbiota across age and disease stage in cystic fibrosis

Coburn B, Wang PW, Diaz Caballero J, Clark ST, Brahma V, Donaldson S, Zhang Y, Surendra A, Gong Y, Elizabeth Tullis D, Yau YC, Waters VJ, Hwang DM, Guttman DS

Sci Rep 2015;5:10241

PMID: 25974282

Abstract

Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4-17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera – Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function.

Phenotypic diversity within a Pseudomonas aeruginosa population infecting an adult with cystic fibrosis

Clark ST, Diaz Caballero J, Cheang M, Coburn B, Wang PW, Donaldson SL, Zhang Y, Liu M, Keshavjee S, Yau YC, Waters VJ, Elizabeth Tullis D, Guttman DS, Hwang DM

Sci Rep 2015;5:10932

PMID: 26047320

Abstract

Chronic airway infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa contribute to the progression of pulmonary disease in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In the setting of CF, within-patient adaptation of a P. aeruginosa strain generates phenotypic diversity that can complicate microbiological analysis of patient samples. We investigated within- and between- sample diversity of 34 phenotypes among 235 P. aeruginosa isolates cultured from sputum samples collected from a single CF patient over the span of one year, and assessed colony morphology as a screening tool for predicting phenotypes, including antimicrobial susceptibilities. We identified 15 distinct colony morphotypes that varied significantly in abundance both within and between sputum samples. Substantial within sample phenotypic heterogeneity was also noted in other phenotypes, with morphotypes being unreliable predictors of antimicrobial susceptibility and other phenotypes. Emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility to β-lactams was observed during periods of clinical therapy with aztreonam. Our findings confirm that the P. aeruginosa population in chronic CF lung infections is highly dynamic, and that intra-sample phenotypic diversity is underestimated if only one or few colonies are analyzed per sample.