Daphne Goring



St. George (downtown)

CSB Appointment


Research Areas

Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, Genetics / Genomics, Molecular Biology, Plant Biology


Ph.D. University of Toronto 1990
M.Sc, McGill University 1985
B.Sc. Trent University 1983

Titles and Honors

Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Primary Undergraduate Department

Cell & Systems Biology

Graduate Programs

Cell & Systems Biology

Research Description

The main area that my research group investigates is the signalling systems regulating compatible and self-incompatible pollen responses in the pistil. These are critical recognition systems for selecting which pollen grains will be accepted or rejected, and thus, selecting optimal pollen grains for fertilization. This research is focused on the complex intracellular signalling takes place in the stigma to identify and accept compatible pollen while rejecting self-incompatible pollen and ignoring foreign pollen.

For the early basal compatible pollen response pathway, we have identified a novel group of receptor kinases that function in the stigma and style to support compatible pollen hydration and pollen tube growth. In addition to more fully characterizing these receptor kinases, we are also searching for downstream signalling proteins in this pathway.  We have also identified an exocyst-linked secretory system that is required in the stigma to promote pollen hydration and pollen tube growth and are further characterizing the components of this system.

We also study the self-incompatibility system, a self-pollen rejection system designed to prevent self-fertilization and inbreeding. In this system, an S-haplotype specific interaction between a pollen ligand and a stigma-specific receptor kinase activates a signalling pathway in the stigma for pollen rejection. My research group identified the ARC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase as a downstream component in this pathway, and ARC1 has been proposed to target compatibility factors for ubiquitination and degradation. Several compatibility factors have now been discovered, including a component of the secretory pathway required for the basal compatible pollen response pathway. Additionally, we have discovered that autophagy is rapid activated in the stigmatic papillae with self-incompatible pollinations and currently exploring this in more detail.

Contact Information

Office Phone: 416-978-2378
Office: ESC4029
Lab: ESC4027
Lab Phone: 416-978-8158

Mailing Address

Department of Cell & Systems Biology
University of Toronto
25 Willcocks St.
Toronto, ON M5S 3B2

Visit lab’s website

Recent News

Congratulations to CSB’s Graduate Student Award Recipients!

Congratulations to our Graduate Students who earned recognition for their accomplishments at our Graduate Student Awards on December 19th, 2022!…

Read More



Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat malectin receptor-like kinases regulate pollen-stigma interactions.

Lee HK, Canales Sanchez LE, Bordeleau SJ, Goring DR
2024, Plant physiology, 38270530

Back to top


The Arabidopsis SNARE complex genes regulate the early stages of pollen-stigma interactions.

Macgregor SR, Beronilla PKS, Goring DR
2023, Plant reproduction, 38038738

A new “lock-and-key” system revealed for plant reproductive barriers.

Goring DR
2023, Cell, 186, 4734-4736, 37890456

Contrasting self-recognition rejection systems for self-incompatibility in Brassica and Papaver.

Goring DR, Bosch M, Franklin-Tong VE
2023, Current biology : CB, 33, R530-R542, 37279687

Back to top


The role of autophagy in the Arabidopsis self-incompatible pollen rejection response

Macgregor SR, Goring DR
2022, Autophagy Reports, 10.1080/27694127.2022.2065602

Finding new Arabidopsis receptor kinases that regulate compatible pollen-pistil interactions

Bordeleau SJ, Canales Sanchez LE, Goring DR
2022, Frontiers in Plant Science, 10.3389/fpls.2022.1022684


Goring D, Cruz‐Garcia F, Franklin‐Tong V
2022, , 10.1002/9780470015902.a0029513

Autophagy is required for self-incompatible pollen rejection in two transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

Macgregor SR, Lee HK, Nelles H, Johnson DC, Zhang T, Ma C, Goring DR
2022, Plant Physiology, 10.1093/plphys/kiac026

Back to top


Two subgroups of receptor-like kinases promote early compatible pollen responses in the Arabidopsis thaliana pistil.

Lee HK, Goring DR
2021, Journal of experimental botany, 72, 1198-1211, 33097927

Cell–cell signaling during the Brassicaceae self-incompatibility response

Abhinandan K, Sankaranarayanan S, Macgregor S, Goring DR, Samuel MA
2021, Trends in Plant Science, 10.1016/j.tplants.2021.10.011

Back to top


A Toolkit for Teasing Apart the Early Stages of Pollen-Stigma Interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Lee HK, Macgregor S, Goring DR
2020, Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2160, 13-28, 32529426

Back to top


Investigations into a putative role for the novel BRASSIKIN pseudokinases in compatible pollen-stigma interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Doucet J, Lee HK, Udugama N, Xu J, Qi B, Goring DR
2019, BMC plant biology, 19, 549, 31829135

Generation of Transgenic Self-Incompatible Shows a Genus-Specific Preference for Self-Incompatibility Genes.

Zhang T, Zhou G, Goring DR, Liang X, Macgregor S, Dai C, Wen J, Yi B, Shen J, Tu J, Fu T, Ma C
2019, Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 8, 31817214

Identification of a role for an E6-like 1 gene in early pollen-stigma interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Doucet J, Truong C, Frank-Webb E, Lee HK, Daneva A, Gao Z, Nowack MK, Goring DR
2019, Plant reproduction, 32, 307-322, 31069543

Back to top


The Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Brassicaceae Self-Incompatibility and Self-Pollen Rejection.

Jany E, Nelles H, Goring DR
2019, International review of cell and molecular biology, 343, 1-35, 30712670

Back to top


Protein and membrane trafficking routes in plants: conventional or unconventional?

Goring DR, Di Sansebastiano GP
2017, Journal of experimental botany, 69, 1-5, 29267941

Exocyst, exosomes, and autophagy in the regulation of Brassicaceae pollen-stigma interactions.

Goring DR
2017, Journal of experimental botany, 69, 69-78, 29036428

Back to top


Yeast two-hybrid interactions between Arabidopsis lyrata S Receptor Kinase and the ARC1 E3 ligase

Indriolo E, Goring DR
2016, Plant signaling & behavior, 27175603

Pollen Acceptance or Rejection: A Tale of Two Pathways

Doucet J, Lee HK, Goring DR
2016, Trends in Plant Science, 10.1016/j.tplants.2016.09.004

Dominance modifier: Expanding mate options

Goring DR
2016, Nature Plants, 10.1038/nplants.2016.210

Back to top


RNA Silencing of Exocyst Genes in the Stigma Impairs the Acceptance of Compatible Pollen in Arabidopsis

Safavian D, Zayed Y, Indriolo E, Chapman L, Ahmed A, Goring DR
2015, Plant physiology, 169, 2526-38, 26443677

Back to top


The ARC1 E3 Ligase Promotes Two Different Self-Pollen Avoidance Traits in Arabidopsis

Indriolo E, Safavian D, Goring DR
2014, The Plant cell, 26, 1525-1543, 24748043

Reversible ubiquitylation in plant biology

Fu H, Goring DR, Genschik P
2014, Frontiers in plant science, 5, 707, 25540649

The ARC1 E3 ligase promotes a strong and stable self-incompatibility response in Arabidopsis species: response to the Nasrallah and Nasrallah commentary

Goring DR, Indriolo E, Samuel MA
2014, The Plant cell, 26, 3842-6, 25336510

PERK-KIPK-KCBP signalling negatively regulates root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

Humphrey TV, Haasen KE, Aldea-Brydges MG, Sun H, Zayed Y, Indriolo E, Goring DR
2015, Journal of experimental botany, 66, 71-83, 25262228

High humidity partially rescues the Arabidopsis thaliana exo70A1 stigmatic defect for accepting compatible pollen

Safavian D, Jamshed M, Sankaranarayanan S, Indriolo E, Samuel MA, Goring DR
2014, Plant reproduction, 27, 121-7, 24973977

A conserved role for the ARC1 E3 ligase in Brassicaceae self-incompatibility

Indriolo E, Goring DR
2014, Frontiers in plant science, 5, 181, 24847339

Autophagy in the rejection of self-pollen in the mustard family

Safavian D, Goring D
2014, Autophagy, 10, 2379-80, 25629934

Back to top


Secretory activity is rapidly induced in stigmatic papillae by compatible pollen, but inhibited for self-incompatible pollen in the Brassicaceae

Safavian D, Goring DR
2013, PloS one, 8, e84286, 24386363

Back to top


The ARC1 E3 ligase gene is frequently deleted in self-compatible Brassicaceae species and has a conserved role in Arabidopsis lyrata self-pollen rejection

Indriolo E, Tharmapalan P, Wright SI, Goring DR
2012, The Plant cell, 24, 4607-20, 23204404

Back to top


Proteomic analysis of Brassica stigmatic proteins following the self-incompatibility reaction reveals a role for microtubule dynamics during pollen responses

Samuel MA, Tang W, Jamshed M, Northey J, Patel D, Smith D, Siu KW, Muench DG, Wang ZY, Goring DR
2011, Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, 10, M111.011338, 21890472

Altered germination and subcellular localization patterns for PUB44/SAUL1 in response to stress and phytohormone treatments

Salt JN, Yoshioka K, Moeder W, Goring DR
2011, PloS one, 6, e21321, 21738636

Misregulation of phosphoinositides in Arabidopsis thaliana decreases pollen hydration and maternal fertility

Chapman LA, Goring DR
2011, Sexual plant reproduction, 24, 319-26, 21691764

Back to top


Plant science. Pollen gets more complex

Indriolo E, Goring DR
2010, Science (New York, N.Y.), 330, 767-8, 21051623

Gene expression: How plants avoid incest

Goring D, Indriolo E
2010, Nature, 466, 926-8, 20725026

Pollen-pistil interactions regulating successful fertilization in the Brassicaceae

Chapman LA, Goring DR
2010, Journal of experimental botany, 61, 1987-99, 20181663

Back to top


Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst complex gene families by phylogenetic, expression profiling, and subcellular localization studies

Chong YT, Gidda SK, Sanford C, Parkinson J, Mullen RT, Goring DR
2010, The New phytologist, 185, 401-19, 19895414

Cellular pathways regulating responses to compatible and self-incompatible pollen in Brassica and Arabidopsis stigmas intersect at Exo70A1, a putative component of the exocyst complex

Samuel MA, Chong YT, Haasen KE, Aldea-Brydges MG, Stone SL, Goring DR
2009, The Plant cell, 21, 2655-71, 19789280

The diversity of plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases: from upstream activators to downstream target substrates

Yee D, Goring DR
2009, Journal of experimental botany, 60, 1109-21, 19196749

Back to top


Interactions between the S-domain receptor kinases and AtPUB-ARM E3 ubiquitin ligases suggest a conserved signaling pathway in Arabidopsis

Samuel MA, Mudgil Y, Salt JN, Delmas F, Ramachandran S, Chilelli A, Goring DR
2008, Plant physiology, 147, 2084-95, 18552232

Self/nonself perception and recognition mechanisms in plants: a comparison of self-incompatibility and innate immunity

Sanabria N, Goring D, Nürnberger T, Dubery I
2008, The New phytologist, 178, 503-14, 18346103

Back to top


Sentinels at the wall: cell wall receptors and sensors

Humphrey TV, Bonetta DT, Goring DR
2007, The New phytologist, 176, 7-21, 17803638

Back to top


Altered Expression of PERK Receptor Kinases in Arabidopsis Leads to Changes in Growth and Floral Organ Formation

Haffani YZ, Silva-Gagliardi NF, Sewter SK, Grace Aldea M, Zhao Z, Nakhamchik A, Cameron RK, Goring DR
2006, Plant signaling & behavior, 1, 251-60, 19516986

Multifunctional arm repeat domains in plants

Samuel MA, Salt JN, Shiu SH, Goring DR
2006, International review of cytology, 253, 1-26, 17098053

Back to top


A comprehensive expression analysis of the Arabidopsis proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinase gene family using bioinformatic and experimental approaches

Nakhamchik A, Zhao Z, Provart NJ, Shiu SH, Keatley SK, Cameron RK, Goring DR
2004, Plant & cell physiology, 45, 1875-81, 15653807

Antisense suppression of thioredoxin h mRNA in Brassica napus cv. Westar pistils causes a low level constitutive pollen rejection response

Haffani YZ, Gaude T, Cock JM, Goring DR
2004, Plant molecular biology, 55, 619-30, 15604705

Plant sciences. Self-rejection–a new kinase connection

Goring DR, Walker JC
2004, Science (New York, N.Y.), 303, 1474-5, 15001763

Back to top


A large complement of the predicted Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins are members of the U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase family

Mudgil Y, Shiu SH, Stone SL, Salt JN, Goring DR
2004, Plant physiology, 134, 59-66, 14657406

ARC1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and promotes the ubiquitination of proteins during the rejection of self-incompatible Brassica pollen

Stone SL, Anderson EM, Mullen RT, Goring DR
2003, The Plant cell, 15, 885-98, 12671085

Back to top


The proline-rich, extensin-like receptor kinase-1 (PERK1) gene is rapidly induced by wounding

Silva NF, Goring DR
2002, Plant molecular biology, 50, 667-85, 12374299

Back to top