Professor Kenneth C. Welch

Kenneth C. Welch

Associate Professor



CSB Appointment


Research Areas

Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology, Physiology, Systems Biology


Ph.D. 2007 University of California, Santa Barbara
M.A. 2005 University of California, Santa Barbara
B.Sc. 1998 Trinity University

Primary Undergraduate Department

Biological Sciences, UTSC

Graduate Programs

Cell & Systems Biology
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Research Description

I use and integrative and comparative approach to study the physiology of muscle function, fuel use, metabolism and energetics during locomotion.

Contact Information

Office Phone: 416-208-5100
Office: S521B
Lab: SW161E
Lab Phone: 416-208-5147

Mailing Address

Department of Cell & Systems Biology
University of Toronto
1265 Military Trail
Scarborough, ON M1C 1A4

Visit lab’s website



Carbon stable-isotope tracking in breath for comparative studies of fuel use

Welch KC, Péronnet F, Hatch KA, Voigt CC, McCue MD
2015, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 25817456

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Sugar flux through the flight muscles of hovering vertebrate nectarivores: a review

Welch KC, Chen CC
2014, Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology, 25031038

Myosin heavy-chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches

Velten BP, Welch KC
2014, American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 306, R845-51, 24671242

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Glucose transporter expression in an avian nectarivore: the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)

Welch KC, Allalou A, Sehgal P, Cheng J, Ashok A
2013, PloS one, 8, e77003, 24155916

Neuromuscular control of hovering wingbeat kinematics in response to distinct flight challenges in the ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris

Mahalingam S, Welch KC
2013, The Journal of experimental biology, 216, 4161-71, 23948477

Very low force-generating ability and unusually high temperature dependency in hummingbird flight muscle fibers

Reiser PJ, Welch KC, Suarez RK, Altshuler DL
2013, The Journal of experimental biology, 216, 2247-56, 23580719

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The sugar oxidation cascade: aerial refueling in hummingbirds and nectar bats

Suarez RK, Herrera M LG, Welch KC
2011, The Journal of experimental biology, 214, 172-8, 21177938

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The power of feeder-mask respirometry as a method for examining hummingbird energetics

Welch KC
2011, Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 158, 276-86, 20656051

Neuromuscular control of wingbeat kinematics in Anna’s hummingbirds (Calypte anna)

Altshuler DL, Welch KC, Cho BH, Welch DB, Lin AF, Dickson WB, Dickinson MH
2010, The Journal of experimental biology, 213, 2507-14, 20581280

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Fiber type homogeneity of the flight musculature in small birds

Welch KC, Altshuler DL
2009, Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology, 152, 324-31, 19162216

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Dietary sugar as a direct fuel for flight in the nectarivorous bat Glossophaga soricina

Welch KC, Herrera M LG, Suarez RK
2008, The Journal of experimental biology, 211, 310-6, 18203985

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Oxidation rate and turnover of ingested sugar in hovering Anna’s (Calypte anna) and rufous (Selasphorus rufus) hummingbirds

Welch KC, Suarez RK
2007, The Journal of experimental biology, 210, 2154-62, 17562889

Oxygen consumption rates in hovering hummingbirds reflect substrate-dependent differences in P/O ratios: carbohydrate as a ‘premium fuel’

Welch KC, Altshuler DL, Suarez RK
2007, The Journal of experimental biology, 210, 2146-53, 17562888

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Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar

Welch KC, Bakken BH, Martinez del Rio C, Suarez RK
2006, Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ, 79, 1082-7, 17041873

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Allometric scaling of flight energetics in Panamanian orchid bees: a comparative phylogenetic approach

Darveau CA, Hochachka PW, Welch KC, Roubik DW, Suarez RK
2005, The Journal of experimental biology, 208, 3581-91, 16155229

Energy metabolism in orchid bee flight muscles: carbohydrate fuels all

Suarez RK, Darveau CA, Welch KC, O'Brien DM, Roubik DW, Hochachka PW
2005, The Journal of experimental biology, 208, 3573-9, 16155228

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