The Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Stomatal Immunity

Hurley B, Lee D, Mott A, Wilton M, Liu J, Liu YC, Angers S, Coaker G, Guttman DS, Desveaux D

PLoS ONE 2014;9(12):e114921

PMID: 25503437

Abstract

Pseudomonas syringae subverts plant immune signalling through injection of type III secreted effectors (T3SE) into host cells. The T3SE HopF2 can disable Arabidopsis immunity through Its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Proteomic analysis of HopF2 interacting proteins identified a protein complex containing ATPases required for regulating stomatal aperture, suggesting HopF2 may manipulate stomatal immunity. Here we report HopF2 can inhibit stomatal immunity independent of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Transgenic expression of HopF2 in Arabidopsis inhibits stomatal closing in response to P. syringae and increases the virulence of surface inoculated P. syringae. Further, transgenic expression of HopF2 inhibits flg22 induced reactive oxygen species production. Intriguingly, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is dispensable for inhibiting stomatal immunity and flg22 induced reactive oxygen species. Together, this implies HopF2 may be a bifunctional T3SE with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity required for inhibiting apoplastic immunity and an independent function required to inhibit stomatal immunity.

Proteomics of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants

Hurley B, Subramaniam R, Guttman DS, Desveaux D

Virulence 2014 Sep;5(7)

PMID: 25290905

Abstract

Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was originally termed gene-for-gene resistance and dates back to fundamental observations of flax resistance to rust fungi by Harold Henry Flor in the 1940s. Since then, genetic and biochemical approaches have defined our current understanding of how plant “resistance” proteins recognize microbial effectors. More recently, proteomic approaches have expanded our view of the protein landscape during ETI and contributed significant advances to our mechanistic understanding of ETI signaling. Here we provide an overview of proteomic techniques that have been used to study plant ETI including both global and targeted approaches. We discuss the challenges associated with ETI proteomics and highlight specific examples from the literature, which demonstrate how proteomics is advancing the ETI research field.

Arabidopsis GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors activate jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent disease susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, as well as JA-independent plant immunity against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea

Murmu J, Wilton M, Allard G, Pandeya R, Desveaux D, Singh J, Subramaniam R

Mol. Plant Pathol. 2014 Feb;15(2):174-84

PMID: 24393452

Abstract

Arabidopsis thaliana GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK1 and 2) transcription factors regulate chloroplast development in a redundant manner. Overexpression of AtGLK1 (35S:AtGLK1) in Arabidopsis also confers resistance to the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. To further elucidate the role of GLK transcription factors in plant defence, the Arabidopsis glk1 glk2 double-mutant and 35S:AtGLK1 plants were challenged with the virulent oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) Noco2. Compared with Col-0, glk1 glk2 plants were highly resistant to Hpa Noco2, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants showed enhanced susceptibility to this pathogen. Genetic studies suggested that AtGLK-mediated plant defence to Hpa Noco2 was partially dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, but independent of the SA signalling protein NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (NPR1). Pretreatment with jasmonic acid (JA) dramatically reversed Hpa Noco2 resistance in the glk1 glk2 double mutant, but only marginally affected the 35S:AtGLK1 plants. In addition, overexpression of AtGLK1 in the JA signalling mutant coi1-16 did not increase susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. Together, our GLK gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments suggest that GLK acts upstream of JA signalling in disease susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. In contrast, glk1 glk2 plants were more susceptible to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants exhibited heightened resistance which could be maintained in the absence of JA signalling. Together, the data reveal that AtGLK1 is involved in JA-dependent susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hpa Noco2 and in JA-independent resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea.